MAKE AN APPOINTMENT

When 15% of the population of a country is above the age of 60 years, the country is said to have become an ageing nation. Projections by the United Nations suggest Malaysia will become one by the year 2030. But compared to the developed nations, Malaysia is not fully prepared to face the challenges of an ageing society.

RM 1.7 millions

Funding

10 projects

Faculities

4 years

2017 - 2020

ABOUT PROGRAMME

The most flourishing, idyllic and outstanding period of our life should be our retirement years or more appropriately termed the golden age. This period of our lives should be when we experience the most peace, prosperity, happiness, contentment and times of relaxation t. However, retirement, if not planned correctly, can be a time of great challenge - physically, mentally and financially. It said that a country becomes an ageing nation when 15% of the population is above the age of 60 years.

Malaysia is expected to become one by the year 2030 when we would have more retired Malaysians and an increasingly ageing population. Fret not; an ageing nation is not something to be mourned. Rather it should be celebrated. Ever since our independence 60 years ago, Malaysians have increased life expectancy by 20 years (Straits Times, 2017). This is due to the improvements in primary public health care, food safety and protection against infectious diseases via vaccinations. Nevertheless, the predicaments of an ageing population specifically in Malaysia, requires rethinking on many issues such as financial and physical independence, social networks, chronic medical problems and the family support system.  This is the impetus for the Ageing and Quality of Life Flagship Research Programme at Taylor's.

ABOUT PROJECTS

This flagship programme is divided into a series of projects which involves staffs from the following Schools and Faculties: Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, and Faculty of Business & Law.

ROLE OF AJUNOLIC ACID AND CHEBULINIC ACOD ON CARDIO-METABOLIC FUNCTIONING IN MYD88 DEPENDENT TLR-4 DOWNSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS: THERAPEUTIC AND MOLECULAR APPROACH

Overview

Our population is rapidly aging and the number of people with cardio-metabolic disorders among adults aged 20-70 years is expected to rise from 345 million in 2015 to 650 million by the year 2030. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of those diseases that occurs due to the defects in cardio-metabolic function and the homeostasis towards mid-life aging process. In the current scenario Asia is on the top of the list with more people living with DCM. There are very few drugs in the market at high cost which is a burden for many families. In light of cardio-metabolic dysfunctions, we at Taylor’s University would like to embark on a journey to provide an alternative solution to prevent aging related cardiac disease associated with ageing in diabetes. 

Today, the goal of anti-aging medicine shifts from prolonging lifespan to health span. We target at a healthy elderly life which is free of aging-associated diseases. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of those disease and the primary approach for preventing and treating DCM includes alternative therapeutics from the natural sources. This study design would be able to identify the potential of natural pharmacological agents that can be easily used in ageing related complications by the elderly. Among them, arjunolic acid and chebulinic acid have been shown to exhibits pleiotropic pharmacological activities. However, we are exploring the potential of these effective phytochemicals candidate through molecular pathways associated with diabetes and cardiomyopathy.

Moreover, its effective role in cardio-metabolic dysfunction is further warranted through in depth cell based experiments and animal models that will provide insights into the anti-diabetic and cardio-protective effects of arjunolic acid and chebulinic acid in ameliorating MyD88 mediating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Ultimately, this molecular approach will be a Taylor’s University property rights in the development process of a therapeutic for cardio-metabolic functioning, especially in the obesity related diabetes and cardiac dysfunction in aging population.

Project Duration

4 years

Key Experts
SOCIAL AGEING: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY THE ELDERLY HOMECARE CENTRE IN MALAYSIA

Overview

The powerful demographic trend of aging of Malaysian population has consequences for the entire society and its economy. Malaysian government, NGO’s and private organizations are all confronting the challenges posed by the aging population.

This study aims to discover the issues and challenges faced by the Elderly home administrators, caregivers and management personnel.  Literature review indicates issues like financial pressure, recruitment and retention of staff, increased demand for services, overcrowding, inadequate infrastructure, insufficient training and poor quality care. The spiralling cost of the elderly home centres inspired another objective of this study to aim at devising innovative and entrepreneurial strategies to help create self-sustained centres.

 

Qualitative method which cover in-depth interviews and phenomenal observation, will provide insight into the participants’ view of the issues and challenges, their subjective meanings and their interpretations of the situations. The interpretive inquiry, then weaves this web of meaning into an emerging pattern of meanings (model) which will illuminate the issues and challenges of the management personnel and caregivers of the centres.

These findings will serve as basis for recommendations to the elderly home centres   and the ministry on how to become financial self-sustaining.

Project Duration

1 1/2 years

Key Experts
APPLICATION OF MM/PBSA-BASED METHODS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL LEADS TARGETTING GPCRS IMPLICATED IN AGEING-RELATED DISEASES.

Overview


G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane proteins that represent a major target for drug discovery and design, with an estimated of 30-50% of all drugs marketed acting at these receptors. Among the GPCRs are several receptors which are currently of immense interest for the treatment of diseases related to ageing such as diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These include GPCRs such as glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1), bombesin receptor 3 (BB3), free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor, dopamine receptor D3 (D3R), the opioid receptors, the adenosine receptors, and the cannabinoid receptors.

Despite the potential of GPCRs and the recent solving of several new GPCR crystal structures for structure-based drug design, there is still a need for more accurate methods to improve virtual screening enrichment for lead discovery and to predict the relative binding affinities of known GPCR ligands for lead optimization purposes. Methods such Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) have been shown to improve docking results, provide good correlations with experimental binding affinities, and improve virtual screening enrichment in several protein targets. However, their applicability to GPCR has not been extensively studied. Similarly, MM/PBSA methods have rarely been tested on homology models, with most studies utilizing various subsets of crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank.

In this study, we propose to study the utility of MM/PBSA methods in improving the ranking of docking results, predicting the relative binding affinities of known GPCR ligands, and improve GPCR virtual screening enrichment. Active ligands will be docked to GPCR crystal structures using four popular docking programs and the predicted docking scores correlated with experimental data before being subject to MM/PBSA calculations. The MM/PBSA-predicted free energies of binding will then be compared to experimental binding free energies to determine if MM/PBSA significantly improves binding affinity predictions. Similarly, virtual screening enrichment will be assessed following MM/PBSA post-processing of docked active ligands with matching decoys, allowing for the development of MM/PBSA-based protocols for virtual screening and lead optimization. 

The study will subsequently be extended to include homology models to broaden the domain of applicability of the protocols derived. The findings of this study will subsequently be used for structure-based drug discovery methods involving various GPCRs implicated in ageing-related diseases. Specifically, virtual screening and lead optimization protocols utilizing MM/PBSA as a refinement procedure will be developed for selected GPCR targets to identify novel lead compounds

Project Duration

4 years

Key Experts
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS TO GUIDE PRACTICE IN AGEING POPULATION: FOCUSING ON THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND COGNITIVE INTERVENTIONS

Overview


As the world is ageing, care of the older people is an increasingly major area of human endeavour. The major issues faced by older persons are mainly health and social, there is continuing research evaluating various interventions to improve the quality of life of the older persons, with dedicated programmes and institutes set up for this purpose.

Synthesized research evidence represents the most complete and reliable source of reference for healthcare decision-making. The development of synthesized evidence, most commonly systematic reviews, follows a series of defined steps and expected standards to ensure its methodological rigour. In this project, which comprises four-sub projects that will lead to at least 5 ISI-cited publications, trials in specific topics in the care of the elderly will be synthesized. These topics are likely to have wide appeal among the university-wide faculty of different backgrounds; for instance, the effects of dancing and yoga for the cognitive and physical wellbeing, music therapy for dementia and sleep quality, the physical, emotional and cognitive effects of animal-assisted therapy as well as measures to reduce social isolation in the ageing population. The rationale for conceiving these reviews include the increasingly common practice of these interventions in various communities worldwide, their uncertain benefit-harm balance and cost-effectiveness, which require robust and up-to-date synthesis of research evidence to inform guideline panel and health policy makers. The impact of these systematic reviews, when published will be substantial globally.

All reviews in development involve multinational collaboration between Malaysia, Australia and Thailand, and cross-institutional collaboration within Malaysia between Taylor’s Monash and Ministry of Health. The provision of institutional funding for author’s meetings, work-in and data handling work will make a substantial difference in improving the efficiency of the review development.

Project Duration

4 years

Key Experts
AGEING POPULATION: EXTENDING THE TOURISM MARKET

Overview


According to the United Nations (2012) projections, one of the future market trends by the year 2030 is the increase in number of elderly tourists. Following a gradual ageing process, the ageing population are expected to grow faster than other age groups. The importance of the ageing segment, in general, is determined by the gradual process of ageing (Szmigin and Carrigan 2001) which is linked to plenty of time and money to spend on travel (Grougiou,  and Pettigrew 2011; Lohmann and Danielsson 2001) and better health condition (Christensen,  Doblhammer,  Rau, and Vaupel  2009).

Hence, the tourism sector is emerging as one of the biggest beneficiaries of the aging process as a result of changes in the lifestyle of the population currently, more leisure-oriented than previous generations. All of these characteristics will turn this growing segment into a very lucrative targeting market. However, senior tourist is a segment that has not held great importance in the tourism industry and it is still a relatively new segment that is poorly studied and mistakenly segmented. Thus designing specific marketing strategies and adapting the tourist product to the prospective needs of elderly tourists are becoming more and more important. This study initiates an original inquiry into the travelling behaviour of ageing population specifically among retirees and also aims to identify the main characteristics of the retired consumers for the tourism industry.

This study adopts a mixed method approach to generate common trends as well as deeper insight based on specific individual experience. The research objectives are:-

  1. To examine the factors influencing retirees decision for travel.
  2. To determine their needs in their travelling specifications.
  3. To investigate how retirees decide on their travelling decisions.
  4. To investigate the underlying travelling reasons. 
  5. To investigate the different characteristics of retirees who like to travel.
  6. To propose an effective marketing plan to attract more retirees to travel.

 

Project Duration

2 years

Key Experts
THE ANTECEDENTS OF RETIREMENT PREPAREDNESS: ARE MALAYSIANS PERSONALLY AND FINANCIALLY PREPARED FOR THEIR GOLDEN YEARS?

Overview

In today’s financial world of volatility and crisis, numerous uncertainties and challenges are faced by people in managing their financial affairs. This is exacerbated by increasing longevity, resulting in a growing aging society that is burdened with challenges and the trappings of a global economy. It is therefore crucial for the elderly to be financially prepared so that they can live a comfortable and healthy life when they retire. This mixed-method study involves both quantitative and qualitative research, and intends to investigate the factors that influence retirement preparedness among Malaysian employees approaching their retirement age, in both the private and public sectors. The quantitative study will analyze a sample of 450 employees to examine the influence of each factor on the retirement preparedness of Malaysian employees approaching their retirement age.  Understanding the determinants of retirement preparedness among Malaysian employees will assist policy makers to re-design and improve their policies to ensure that employees approaching retirement age are well prepared financially to enjoy a sustainable life in their golden years. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Life-Cycle Hypothesis Model which explains the savings and spending patterns of individuals over their life cycle. A specially designed instrument will be developed to elicit information pertaining to the factors influencing the readiness to retire among Malaysian employees approaching their retirement age. The data will be analyzed using the variance based-Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) method. As for the qualitative aspect of the study, we will utilize an open-ended questionnaire, and conduct an in-depth interview with 28 respondents comprising of both the public and private sector employees in Malaysia, with the purpose of understanding the factors that determines their financial well-being after retirement at a later stage of their lives.

The Employees Provident Fund (EPF) officials declared Malaysians do not have enough savings in their EPF accounts. Statistics show only 2.8 million people (38%) of active EPF members met the basic savings amount of RM196,800 whereas 163,252 people (65%) of them aged 54 years have less than RM50, 000 in their EPF accounts with the assumption of no other income sources (KWSP, 2015). This worrying scenario is further accompanied with statistics that show only 60% of Malaysians have some form of retirement strategies planned but in spite of that, 92% of them were still concerned about their ability to retire and were worried to live off from their savings (KWSP, 2015).

In a study conducted by HSBC (2016), it was revealed that even in periods of financial turmoil, retirement planning was not the main priority for 85% of working age individuals. 81% of working age people experienced life-changing events with immediate and unexpected life expenses became the priority, and this had dramatically impacted their ability to save for retirement (HSBC, 2016). About 43% of widowed or divorced retirees found themselves in much worse than expected financial situations as compared with their married counterparts (HSBC, 2016). Other commitments such as paying mortgages, children’s education, paying off debts had also negqatively impacted retirement savings. The ongoing economic downturn has inevitably affected 32% of Malaysians (HSBC, 2016). This includes high rates of unemployment and employee turnovers in organisations that have caused a drop in earnings by 22%, as well as a rise in debt accumulation and other financial obligations. (HSBC, 2016).

Not only are our working class not paying enough attention on financially planning for their retirement, Malaysia is also faced with a yearly decline in total fertility rate (TFR) are declining, changing the demographic structure of the country into an aging nation by year 2030 (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2012). For the social and economic environment, this inbalance creates challenges because too few younger people are paying taxes to sustain pension funds and health care facilities for the elderly. Furthermore, cost of medical and healthcare expenses is forecasted to surge between 10% to 17% in the the future (Mercer Marsh Benefits, 2015).  Another 8 to 10 years is expected that an individual falls gravely ill before any medical treatment fails. As such, medical cost has become a large expenditure for retirement planning on top of normal living expenses. This is further exacerbated by the worldwide increase in life expectancy, with newly developed and developing countries showing the fastest rise in the proportion of senior citizens (aged > 60). Malaysia belongs in this category with an estimated 15% of its population classified as senior citizens by 2035. At present, the number of Malaysians aged 60 years and above is estimated to be 1.4 million and is projected to increase to 3.3 million in the year 2020. The percentage of the population that is 60 years and over has also increased over the years i.e. 5.2% in 1970, 5.7% in 1990 and 6.3% in the year 2000. In the year 2020, this percentage is expected to be 9.8% of the population. Between 1990 and 2020, the population of Malaysia is expected to increase from 18.4 million to 33.3 million - an increase of 80%. The aged population however is expected to increase from 1.05 million in 1990 to 3.26 million over the same period, an increase of 210%.

Apart from an increase in the aged population, the aged are also living longer as evidenced by an increase in life expectancy. As women tend to live longer than men, the disproportion between males and females therefore also increases with ageing. The sex ratio of men per 100 women will decrease from 90.1 in 1990 to 85.8 in 2020. The other feature on the demographic changes that is expected to occur in the aged population is in relation to urbanisation. The percentage of the population in urban areas has increased from 24.5% in 1957 to 50.8% in 1990. Thus, it is also expected that the proportion of the aged population is higher in the urban than the rural area and this change in the demographic pattern of the aged population will also influence the distribution of health care resources.

With that being said, juggling so many priorities at one time has caused retirement savings plans to be pushed aside and be dealt with only when the time approaches. In view of the current deteriorating economy, rising living costs and aging society, this presents further complications to the elderly to retire comfortably in the future and have a healthy and sustainable retirement.  It is a real and serious issue that needs to be addressed and it will not subdue unless appropriate measures are executed efficiently. Instigated by these growing concerns, there is a pertinent need for further research on retirement preparedness among those appraoching retirement age and to help them find ways to lessen, if not eradicate uncertainty and future complications when they approach their retirement age. In doing so, the issues of well-being among the Malaysian elderly will be seriously looked into.

 

Project Duration

1 year

Key Experts
PSYCHOLOGICAL POVERTY AMONGST MALAYSIANS AGED ADULTS TOWARDS WELL-BEING

Overview

Successful aging is an important and worldwide concept in gerontology. It has brought to the attention of the researcher the importance of studying on the psychological poverty of the aged group and the impacts experianced by them. In Malaysia, the issues regarding the psychological impact on the ageing group with today’s environment, and day to day activities which would cater to their well beings. However, until recently, there has been very little known about successful aging in Malaysia and also limited studies were conducted on the area. Hence, this study will be designed to describe the prevalence of psychological poverty towards the well-being of successful aging among elderlies in Malaysia. This study will involve an indepth exploration through a qualitative approach that comprises of a series of interviews with 30 retired respondents from various ethinicities, both from public and private sectors aged 60 to 70. The significance of the study would bring a boarder understanding to educate or assist in counselling on problem areas faced by these group of adults to provide the elderly with quality life.

The life expectancy of humans is increasing worldwide with newly developed and developing countries showing the fastest rise in the proportion of senior citizens (aged > 60). Malaysia belongs in this category with an estimated 15% of its population classified as senior citizens by 2035. At present, the number of Malaysians aged 60 years and above is estimated to be 1.4 million and is projected to increase to 3.3 million in the year 2020. The percentage of the population that is 60 years and over has also increased over the years i.e. 5.2% in 1970, 5.7% in 1990 and 6.3% in the year 2000. In the year 2020, this percentage is expected to be 9.8% of the population. Between 1990 and 2020, the population of Malaysia is expected to increase from 18.4 million to 33.3 million - an increase of 80%. The aged population however is expected to increase from 1.05 million in 1990 to 3.26 million over the same period, an increase of 210%.


Apart from an increase in the aged population, the aged are also living longer as evidenced by an increase in life expectancy. As women tend to live longer than men, the disproportion between males and females therefore also increases with ageing. The sex ratio of men per 100 women will decrease from 90.1 in 1990 to 85.8 in 2020. The other feature on the demographic changes that is expected to occur in the aged population is in relation to urbanisation. The percentage of the population in urban areas has increased from 24.5% in 1957 to 50.8% in 1990. Thus, it is also expected that the proportion of the aged population is higher in the urban than the rural area and this change in the demographic pattern of the aged population will also influence the distribution of health care resources.

The existing institutions for the aged will not be adequate to meet this expected demand in the near future and so more institutions or homes for the aged would be required. Home care for the elderly is quite well developed in certain countries. Here, community programmes are helpful to families with elderly members. The aim is to provide health service for the non-ambulant and aged, sick to help them be cared for in the community for as long as possible.

Project Duration

1 1/2 year

Key Experts
SUCCESSION PLANNING & GENERATIONAL CHANGE: AN ANALYSIS OF AGEING ENTREPRENEURS IN MALAYSIA

Overview

Scholars emphasize that succession planning is important in ensuring the continuity and prosperity of a business (Ward 2000). Some have even gone to the extent of stating that dealing effectively with the issue of succession planning is the single most lasting gift that one generation can bestow upon the next (Ayers, 1990). Unfortunately, despite cautions, succession planning appears to be left to chance by many family-owned firms (Leon-Guerrero et al. 1998, Rue and Ibrahim 1996). While some other researchers attribute this apparent neglect of succession planning to the emotions generated by the process; it forces incumbents to face their mortality and makes other family members confront the need for change (Dyer 1986, Lansberg 1988). Ibrahim et al. (2004) proposed that the succession process in the family business includes three critical steps. The first step is to prepare the offspring for future leadership role at an early age prior to joining the family firm. The second step is to integrate the offspring into various job positions of the family firm. The third step involves the offspring taking over the control of the family business.

In Malaysia, family ownership constitutes over 43% of the main board companies of the Bursa Malaysia from 1999 through 2005 (Samad et al., 2008). This figure justifies the relevance of this study in order to focus on particular variables that would facilitate transition. Many business owners in Malaysia, especially small and medium industries and enterprises, have little or inadequate knowledge on proper succession planning and are more focused on running the businesses (Gilbert, 2016). Failing to have proper succession planning or asset planning could result in lengthy legal battles and partnership scuffles with regards to distribution of assets, continuation of business and ownership.

This study adopts a mixed method approach to generate common trends as well as deeper insight based on specific experiences. The research objectives are:

  • To determine the key factors influencing succession planning amongst Malay, Chinese and Indian aging entrepreneurs.
  • To differentiate and contrast the succession planning used by entrepreneurs of different ethnicities in Malaysia.
  • To probe how these factors affects the second generation entrepreneurs in business continuity.
  • To investigate the existing business practices in succession planning.

 

To propose an effective business continuity model that fits all entrepreneurs from various ethnicities in Malaysia

Project Duration

2 years

Key Experts
PREVENTION OF NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS (ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE) IN AGEING: A STUDY OF SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF NATURAL PLAN COMPOUNDS ON THE DEGENERATION OF OF Β-AMYLOID PROTEINS.

Overview

In today’s world, our population is rapidly ageing, and the number of people with dementia is expected to grow from 35 million today to 65 million by the year 2030. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is the most common cause of dementia. In the World Alzheimer’s Report (2015), Asia is on the top of the list with 22.9 million people living with AD, which has been projected to increase to 131.5 million by 2030. The global cost of dementia will be burdened at US 1 trillion by 2018.

There are very few drugs in the market at high cost which can be an increased burden for many families. The use of natural products and culinary herbs in medicine has gained popularity in recent years. In light of Alzheimer’s Disease International's vision to improve quality of life for people with dementia and their families throughout the world, we at Taylor’s University would like to embark on a journey to provide an alternative solution to prevent Alzheimer’s disease.

Our main objective is to formulate a nutraceutical which can improve cognitive functions in Alzheimer patients, lessen healthcare cost for families as well as to prevent Alzheimer’s disease in the elderly with little or no side effects. This nutraceutical will be a combination of compounds (chebulinic acid, curcumin, bacoside A and piperine) naturally present in plants. The results from in vitro, animal models, histopathology, microscopy, microarray and immunohistochemistry will provide fundamental insights on the effects of these selected compounds on the β-amyloid plaque formation that are responsible in Alzheimer’s disease. Ultimately, this formulation will be a Taylor’s University future patent product in preventing Alzheimer disease in the ageing population.

Project Duration

4 years

Key Experts
MEDICATION USE AND DRUG-RELATED PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY IN KLANG VALLEY

Overview

Advanced age, complex health conditions and the use of multiple long-term medications have been consistently identified as risk factors for drug-related problems (DRPs). In addition, research shows that only 50% of patients are adherent to their long-term medications. This leads to the question of the extent of medication wastage in the community, and how those medications are disposed. This study aim to investigate the medication use and DRPs encountered by community–dwelling elderly in Klang Valley.

In phase 1 of this project, a mixed-method study (qualitative and quantitative) will be conducted among households in Subang Jaya and Sunway, to determine their knowledge, attitude and practices on medication wastage and disposal in the community. One adult from each household will be identified and interviewed by a researcher.

Phase 2 is a pre-post intervention study. Any elderly aged 60 years old and above, without cognitive impairment and living in the community, will be assessed for DRPs by a pharmacist. This will be performed using a structured questionnaire on participant’s demographic details, medical history and medication history. The pharmacist will try to resolve any DRP identified, and counsel the participants on their medications. Follow up visits will be conducted at 3 and 6 months to reassess the DRP identified during the first visit, and provide additional medication counselling as needed. Participants’ satisfaction towards the pharmacist service will be assessed at the 3 and 6 months follow up visits using a validated questionnaire.

This project is beneficial to the community as one of our objective is to identify and resolve DRPs encountered by community-dwelling elderly. This would lead to improved medication use and better health outcomes in the elderly. In addition, findings from this project will create awareness on the extent of medication wastage and improper medication disposal in Malaysia.

The number of older persons aged 60 years old and above is growing at a very fast pace worldwide. This is partly attributed to the advancement in healthcare. At the same time, research also shows that more and more people are living with multiple chronic health conditions (1). Advanced age, complex health conditions and the use of multiple long-term medications have been consistently identified as risk factors for drug-related problems (DRPs) (2, 3). A DRP is an event or circumstance involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interferes with desired health outcomes (4). DRPs are a major burden on healthcare as it often results in emergency department visits, outpatient clinic visits and hospital admissions (5-7).

Due to their multiple health conditions, community-dwelling elderly are often required to take many medications on a regular and long term basis (8). However, research shows that only 50% of patients are adherent to their long-term medications (9). This leads to the question of the extent of medication wastage in the community, and how those medications are disposed. Improper medication disposal can be hazardous if it leads to contamination of water supplies, or when expired medications are diverted to the market for resale and misuse (10).

At present, there is a lack of studies looking at medication use and DRPs encountered by community-dwelling elderly in Malaysia. Therefore this project aim to investigate the medication use and DRPs encountered by community–dwelling elderly in Klang Valley.

Project Duration

4 years

Key Experts

CONTACT US

Centre for Research Management
Director
Adeline Yong Sui Yen

crm@taylors.edu.my

OTHER RECOMMENDED PROGRAMMES